Nipah and its cousins!

Nipah virus . Yes, of late, we all can see this guy’s name on the headlines of newspapers and also on the news channels. Many people died in Kerala due to infection from Nipah virus. Thanks to the newspapers and news channels, that almost all of us know about the symptoms of the infections and its prevention. In this blog I’m going to talk about the family of Nipah virus; and its cousins.

nipah

In the family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales ; Henipavirus is a genus of RNA viruses. Nipah is a type of RNA virus in this genus.

In 2009, RNA sequences of three novel viruses in phylogenetic relationship to known henipaviruses were detected in African straw-colored fruit bats (Eidolon helvum) in Ghana. Now,how do these henipahvirus  infect? They possess a lipid membrane overlying a shell of viral matrix protein. At the core is a single helical strand of genomic RNA tightly bound to N (nucleocapsid) protein and associated with the L (large) and P (phosphoprotein) proteins, which provide RNA polymerase activity during replication.

Henipavirus_structure.svg

Embedded within the lipid membrane are spikes of F (fusion) protein trimers and G (attachment) protein tetramers. The function of the G protein is to attach the virus to the surface of a host cell via EFNB2, a highly conserved protein present in many mammals. The structure of the attachment glycoprotein has been determined by X-ray crystallography.The F protein fuses the viral membrane with the host cell membrane, releasing the virion contents into the cell. It also causes infected cells to fuse with neighbouring cells to form large, multinucleated syncytia.

 

Now I’ll discuss a brief story about Nipah and its cousins; biologically speaking we shall now discuss about the various species under Henipahvirus genus.

Nipah virus(NiV) (Nipah henipavirus) : Nipah virus was first recognized in 1999 during an outbreak among pig farmers in Kampung Sungai Nipah, Malaysia. No new outbreaks have been reported in Malaysia and Singapore since 1999. NiV was first recognized in Bangladesh in 2001 and nearly annual outbreaks have occurred in that country since, with disease also identified periodically in eastern India.

The natural host of this zoonotic virus(transmitted from animals to humans) are fruit bats of the Pteropodidae Family, Pteropus genus.

Human infections range from asymptomatic infection, acute respiratory infection (mild, severe), and fatal encephalitis. Infected people initially develop influenza-like symptoms of fever, headaches, myalgia (muscle pain), vomiting and sore throat followed by dizziness, drowsiness, altered consciousness, and neurological signs that indicate acute encephalitis.

Hendra virus (HeV) (Hendra henipavirus): Hendra virus (originally called “Equine morbillivirus”) was discovered in September 1994 when it caused the deaths of thirteen horses, and a trainer at a training complex at 10 Williams Avenue, Hendra, a suburb of Brisbane in Queensland, Australia. A second outbreak occurred in August 1994 (chronologically preceding the first outbreak) in Mackay 1,000 km north of Brisbane resulting in the deaths of two horses and their owner.

Flying foxes have been identified as the reservoir host of Hendra Virus.

Flying foxes experimentally infected with the Hendra virus develop a viraemia then excrete the virus in their urine, faeces and saliva for approximately one week. Although they excrete active virus during this time there is no other indication of an illness. Symptoms of Hendra virus infection of humans may be respiratory, including hemorrhage and edema of the lungs, or encephalitic, resulting in meningitis. In horses, infection usually causes pulmonary oedema, congestion and / or neurological sign.

Cedar virus (CedV) (Cedar henipavirus): Cedar Virus (CedV) was first identified in pteropid urine during work on Hendra virus undertaken in Queensland in 2009.Although the virus is reported to be very similar to both Hendra and Nipah viruses, it does not cause illness in laboratory animals usually susceptible to paramyxoviruses. Animals were able to mount an effective response and create effective antibodies.

CedV causes cedar fever. As ironic as it sounds, cedar fever does not actually produce a fever.  In fact, cedar fever is a seasonal allergy brought on by an allergic reaction to the pollen from mountain cedar trees. Mountain cedar grows naturally and is the most allergenic tree in Central Texas.

Kumasi virus (KV) (Ghanaian bat henipavirus): It is also called tomato leaf curl Kumasi virus. As the scientific name suggests its natural hosts are bats from Kumasi region of Ghana. It is not known to produce any specific infection or disease.
Mòjiāng virus (MojV) (Mojiang henipavirus): In 2012,in  Mòjiāng Hani Autonomous County, China, cases of lethal pneumonia among Chinese miners prompted the isolation of a rat-borne henipavirus (HNV), Mòjiāng virus (MojV). Investigation of bat, rat and musk shrew samples from within the cave, where the victims had most probably contracted the disease, led to the discovery of a novel rat-borne paramyxovirus, Mòjiāng virus (MojV).

 

That’s some little bit information about Henipahvirus.

Guys; be safe! Take preveventive measures from Nipah virus infection. You can gain all information about the Nipah virus informations, like transmissions, symptoms,diagnosis,treatements & preventive measures, from the link givem below—

http://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/nipah-virus.

Thank you all.

Image source: Google


Soumyanil Adhikary.

IISER BHOPAL.

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